Browser resolution algorithm

This section explains how different domain record configurations should be interpreted by browsers.

A browser can select a protocol it has support for. If a domain is configured for multiple protocols, it should prioritize a protocol based on browser.preferred_protocols record that can be set to a list of the defined protocols.‚Äč

If browser.preferred_protocols is not set, a browser should use the following value as a default ["bzz", "ipfs", "https", "http", "ftp"]. If browser.preferred_protocols is set but is not complete a browser should fulfill the absent protocols at the end in the default order specified above. A domain can have a single content identifier for each distributed protocol stored in dweb.<protocol>.hash. Ex: dweb.bzz.hash for Swarm's bzz protocol. See Dweb Records for more information.

If none of the dweb hash records are set, a browser should fall back to DNS resolution that is set within dns.* namespace.

Generally, browsers automatically add http:// prefix for any domain in the address bar if the protocol is not specified explicitly by a user. In the case of blockchain domain names (assuming a browser supports many protocols), it is preferred to determine a protocol only after resolving domain records.

Records related to browser resolution

All records related to browser resolution are stored within these namespaces:

  • dns.* - for traditional DNS records

  • dweb.* - for distributed content records

  • browser.* - hint records to help browser determine a preferred hypermedia protocol

If you are looking for a way to get records associated with a domain, see Resolving domain records.

DNS records

Resolver records may contain classical DNS records besides other records. To distinguish those from other crypto records, the dns.* namespace is used. So DNS A corresponds to the dns.A crypto record. Any listed DNS record described in RFC standards is supported. All record names must follow the uppercase naming convention.

As crypto resolver doesn't support multiple records with the same key, but DNS does allow that. Therefore, DNS record value must always be stored as a JSON serialized array of strings. Example 1: a domain that needs one CNAME record set to must be configured as one crypto record dns.CNAME set to [""]. Example 2: a domain that needs two A records set to and must be configured as one crypto record dns.A set to ["",""].

No other data transformation is required when converting a traditional DNS record into a Crypto record other than aggregating records with the same name to one record using serialization as JSON array of strings.

Crypto records do not have a domain name associated with them. That is why there is no feature for storing your subdomain records inside a parent domain. Example: record can only be set inside a resolver of but never inside

A recommended way to display content in a browser for crypto domains is explained in Resolving domains in a browser.


Records TTL can be set for all records or individual types of records. TTL for all records can be set in dns.ttl. TTL for individual record type can be set in dns.<RECORD>.ttl. If ttl for individual record type is not set, a default dns.ttl needs to be applied. If dns.ttl record is not set, the client is recommended to use 300 (5 minutes) as a default value.

Example crypto records setup:




["", ""]









Should be transformed into the following DNS records:














TTL for individual records of the same type is currently unsupported due to the necessity to change the record value format and increased gas cost and their deprecated status according to RFC-2181. Setting dns.ttl instead of TTL for individual records is recommended due to higher gas efficiency.

Authority responses

It is a common practice in DNS to have an authority of a subdomain delegated to a parent domain. This mechanism is not necessary for crypto domains because the cost of subdomain registration is comparable to setting records. In other words, configuring a subdomain using the parent domain has no benefit and may result in even higher gas costs since it's necessary to store associated subdomain names to each record.

Therefore, authority configurations are not supported by blockchain domains at the moment.

Distributed Web records

Distributed Web (Dweb) records are designed to allow one to configure a domain for distributed websites protocols like IPFS or Swarm. Such records are stored in the dweb.* namespace. Each protocol has its own sub-namespace for its data using a canonical name. Example: Swarm's protocol canonic name is bzz so its records are stored at dns.bzz.* namespace.

Record structure can be different based on the protocol. However, all protocols have a common .hash record used to reference content in the distributed network. Example: dns.ipfs.hash for IPFS protocol.

See Resolving domains in a browser for information on how to interpret those records.

Legacy records support

As of Q3 2020, most .crypto domains are configured using legacy record names for IPFS hash and redirect domain:

  1. ipfs.html.value deprecated in favor of dweb.ipfs.hash

  2. ipfs.redirect_domain deprecated in favor of browser.redirect_url

Browsers are strongly recommended to support those records as a fallback when corresponding replacement records are not set.